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Megascience Research Facilities Index

International centre for neutron research (ICNR) on the basis of the highflux research reactor PIK in Gatchina

Cost of the project:

The overall cost of building the PIK reactor is about 60 billion rubles at 2015 values. The cost of the research infrastructure is estimated at about 15 billion rubles. The operating cost of the reactor and the research infrastructure is about 1 billion rubles per year.

Brief description of the project

The project is focused on fundamental and applied research in various fields of science and technology. The ICNR will become a multi-disciplinary S&T core shared research facility, where it will be possible to carry out complementary research on physics, chemistry, biology, Earth science, materials science, as well as in-process monitoring of products and works on development of micro- and nanoelectronics technologies, creation of isotopes, elemental analysis of samples and products, medicine.

The PIK Research Reactor

Location:

B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Gatchina, Leningrad Region

Initiating agency:

National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow

Duration of the project:

2011-2022

Uniqueness and advantages of the project

The PIK reactor serves as a powerful source of neutrons that are slowed down to the required energy, removed from the reactor through special channels and transported through the neutron guide system to experimental facilities for research. In its parameters and experimental capabilities, the PIK reactor exceeds all existing research reactors, including the world's only analogue – the HFR reactor at the European neutron research center – the international Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France).

Scientific and practical significance of the project

The expected results of the research carried out in the ICRN are:

  • obtaining new data on the structure and dynamics of substances, nanomaterials, materials with special properties, as well as on methods for their production, including the development of technologies;
  • obtaining new data on atomic nuclei and fundamental interactions;
  • obtaining new data on the structure and properties of biological objects, chemical compounds, polymers;
  • carrying out a wide range of applied and practical works from the production of isotopes to the use of neutrons in technological processes.

Current state of the project

A road map has been prepared to drive the PIK reactor up to its designed capacity at the end of 2018. The second and third launch complexes of the reactor have been reconstructed and the compliance of the launch complexes with the requirements of technical regulations and other legal acts, including project documentation, has been confirmed by Rostekhnadzor (the order of 24th December 2015).

To prepare for the power startup and driving the reactor up to its designed capacity of 100 MW the following investment projects are being implemented:

  • the reconstruction of the laboratory complex of the PIK research reactor (stage 1) with a deadline for commissioning in 2017. The result of the work is the introduction of an office building for the reactor users with a data processing center;
  • the modernization of engineering and technical systems to ensure the operation of the PIK reactor and its research stations with a deadline for commissioning in 2018. The result of the work should be ensuring the conditions for the power startup of the PIK reactor with the power generation of 50000 MWh per year.

The project documentation for the mentioned projects has been approved and equipment delivery has been started.

Russian-Italian project for creating the Ignitor Tokamak

Cost of the project:

The overall cost of building the tokamak is about 355 million euros.

Brief description of the project

The Russian-Italian project is aimed at creating a tokamak with high magnetic field and plasma density more than an order of magnitude higher in comparison with "classical" tokamaks, in which the ignition of thermonuclear reactions will be achieved by the flowing current due to the ohmic heating of the plasma. Such a mode of implementation of thermonuclear reactions makes it possible to achieve unlimited growth of thermonuclear energy power, which gives a significant advantage, especially in geometrical dimensions. For comparison, at approximately equal thermonuclear power, the volume of the vacuum chamber of the international tokamak (ITER) is about 100 times larger than the volume of the vacuum chamber of the Ignitor tokamak. An important feature of the project is the potential to significantly reduce the volume and cost of future thermonuclear power reactors by essentially increasing the specific yield of thermonuclear reactions, since the relative yield of thermonuclear reactions increases by two orders of magnitude with increasing plasma density by an order of magnitude.

The Ignitor Tokamak

Location:

Strong Field Tokamak (SFT) experimental complex in Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI), Troitsk

Initiating agency:

National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow

Duration of the project:

2016-2024

Uniqueness and advantages of the project

The unique feature of the Ignitor tokamak is, first of all, its compact size, due to the use of high magnetic fields and ohmic heating of dense plasma for ignition of the thermonuclear reaction without means of powerful additional heating. The Ignitor tokamak project implementation will create a fundamentally new direction of the compact tokamaks, in which thermonuclear reactions will be initiated using high magnetic field and the powerful current in the dense thermonuclear plasma, which will allow justifying the creation of compact and inexpensive thermonuclear reactors and neutron sources based on tokamaks.

Scientific and practical significance of the project

As a result of the implementation of the Ignitor tokamak project, the Russian Federation and Italy will own a new technology of controlled thermonuclear fusion and thermonuclear energy, high-power pulsed neutron sources, new structural, radiation-resistant and electrical engineering materials, robotics, physical and process control systems, new technological applications for the industrial sector of economy.

In the course of the Ignitor project it is planned to create an educational center for training young specialists in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion and high technologies.

Current state of the project

The Conceptual Design Report for the Ignitor tokamak was developed, which contains physical and technical foundations of the tokamak, a description of energetic and engineering infrastructure for the tokamak placement, a preliminary analysis of risks and safety, as well as the cost estimate, including the cost of developing a technical design project, and a schedule for the project.

The next stage of the project implementation is the joint development of the Technical Design Report with Italian side starting in 2017. The research program of the megaproject will be discussed during the 7th and the 8th meetings of the Joint Committee of the Kurchatov Institute and INFN (scheduled for April and November of 2017 respectively). Within the project for international scientific and technical cooperation in megascience between the Russian Federation and the European Union - CREMLIN - a workshop on Ignitor will be held in July 2017. In 2017, it is also planned to carry out the main work on the preparation of the intergovernmental Russian-Italian agreement on the implementation of the Ignitor project.

Specialized synchrotron radiation source of the fourth generation (SSRS-4)

Cost of the project:

The preliminary cost of installation is estimated at about 60 billion rubles.

Brief description of the project

The purpose of the project is to create a fundamentally new specialized x-ray source - the synchrotron radiation source of the fourth generation (SSRS-4) with extremely high spatial coherence corresponding to laser radiation, record brightness and time structure.

The presence of such a facility will allow to carry out fundamental and applied research that can provide a breakthrough in the field of condensed matter physics, nano- and biosystems, including hybrid systems, functional and biocompatible materials, medical diagnostics and targeted drug delivery systems and will lead to the development of innovations in domestic technologies, in particular in the field of superconductivity, magnetic systems, materials science, instrumentation and so on. The SSRS-4 will be the basic installation of the Russian innovative nuclear physics complex and will contribute to the formation of a new technological structure in Russia based on the convergence of science and technology.

Specialized synchrotron radiation source of the fourth generation (SSRS-4)

Location:

National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow

Initiating agency:

National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow

Duration of the project:

2017-2027

Uniqueness and advantages of the project

Three key parameters of the SSRS-4 radiation - coherence, brightness and time structure – will determine new objects and processes on which the researchers’ attention will be focused. The use of the unique characteristics of the SSRS-4 radiation will lead to the revolutionary results in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Scientific and practical significance of the project

The SSRS-4 will become a world-class interdisciplinary core shared research facility. The main scientific problems solved with the help of the SSRS-4 are as follows:

  • the study of structure and dynamics of living and nonliving matter with atomic spatial and femtosecond time resolution;
  • the development of new technologies for synthesis and diagnostics of nanostructured and hybrid materials;
  • the study of molecular-biological and neurophysiological processes in living systems;
  • the search for new materials for ultra-fast computers, including those based on artificial intelligence, the development of new approaches to studying brain function and genetic apparatus;
  • the development of new drugs and methods for targeted delivery, methods of x-ray medical nanodiagnostics and nanotherapy;
  • the study of the fine features of the structure of macromolecular crystals, biological cells and membranes, including their structural dynamics;
  • the synthesis of materials with new crystal and magnetic properties;
  • the study of phase transitions in conditions close to the conditions in the center of the Earth and other planets;
  • the generation and analysis of plasma state and stability of structural materials for the development of thermonuclear facilities of new type;
  • increasing by several orders spatial and time resolution in the study of the structure of nanoobjects and nanomaterials up to single molecules.

Current state of the project

The SSRS-4 project is at the preliminary stage of development. In 2015, a working group was established in the Kurchatov Institute to develop conceptual decisions, including a series of research works to determine the configuration and key technical parameters of the installation and ways to achieve them. Currently, a concept paper describing the scope of the new generation synchrotron source, as well as the possible types of accelerator designs applicable to the creation of such a source, has been developed. In 2017, it is planned to start the development of a conceptual design project of the installation.

Complex of superconducting rings with colliding beams of heavy ions NICA in Dubna

Cost of the project:

The preliminary cost of the complex is estimated at about 17.5 billion rubles at 2013 values.

Brief description of the project

The NICA complex is aimed at the reconstruction and study of matter under extreme conditions of its phase transitions. Such a state of matter can be achieved by heavy ions collision of not very high by today’s standards energies, much smaller than at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN or at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The most important fundamental problems in this area include: searching and studying new, not previously observed forms of baryonic matter; understanding the causes of the cohesion of quarks in nucleons; searching for the causes of symmetry breaking, explaining the mechanism of the formation of the world consisting only of matter, in the complete absence of antimatter in our part of the Universe.

The NICA complex includes a unique collider of heavy ions and polarized light nuclei based on the Dubna superconducting Nuclotron accelerator, which will be the source of beams for the collider. This is a circular accelerator (cyclotron), capable of accelerating and colliding beams of protons and heavy ions (up to very massive gold ions). The planned kinetic energy of ions will reach 4.5 GeV/nucleon, protons - 12.6 GeV/nucleon. At two points of beam collision the following experimental installations will be placed: the MPD (Multi-Purpose Detector) that is designed to carry out experiments in relativistic nuclear physics in the collisions of beams of heavy elements nuclei, heavy elements nuclei with protons and proton-proton collisions, and the SPD (Spin Physics Detector) that is designed for experiments in spin physics in the collisions of beams of the light elements nuclei.

Complex of superconducting rings with colliding beams of heavy ions NICA

Location:

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna.

Initiating agency:

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna.

Duration of the project:

2016-2020

Uniqueness and advantages of the project

Unlike the Large Hadron Collider at CERN that aims to achieve maximum beam energy, the NICA accelerator complex aims to achieve maximum baryon density of nuclear matter resulting from the collision of heavy ions, which is not available in other laboratories of the world. The created complex will allow conducting fundamental studies of matter with the most achievable baryon matter densities in the laboratory conditions on the Earth.

Scientific and practical significance of the project

The full-scale implementation of the NICA project will ensure accelerated development in many scientific and technological fields. The infrastructure of the complex will make it possible to use the available particle beams not only for fundamental research, but also for innovative and technical work in such areas as:

  • constructing universal charged particle accelerators for the transmutation of radioactive waste and the solution of the problems of the nuclear power of subcritical systems;
  • conducting medical and radiobiological studies, including those for treating cancer;
  • obtaining new results in reducing the material and energy consumption, achieving versatility of operating modes and increasing the limit of operating parameters of superconducting magnets;
  • developing radiation-resistant microelectronics and protection systems for piloted space exploration;
  • developing educational programs of Russian universities.

Megascience projects are an ideal platform for training highly professional scientific and engineering personnel. Today, within the framework of the NICA project, regular schools for students and young scientists are held in JINR. Over the past 5 years, more than ten graduate students, hundreds of students, 40 scholars have received support.

Current state of the project

The Ministry of Education and Science on behalf of the Government of the Russian Federation signed an Agreement with JINR (the order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 2 June 2016) on establishment and operation of the NICA complex, in accordance with which the project will be financed from the federal budget in the amount of 8800 million rubles (at 2013 values). A part of these funds in the amount of 4837.9 million rubles was allocated for these purposes in 2016, which will ensure the work on the creation of the complex in the period of 2016-2018. Currently, the work is underway on all the objects of the NICA complex.

Super Charm-Tau Factory - accelerator complex with colliding electron-positron beams

Cost of the project:

The preliminary cost of the complex is estimated at about 17.9 billion rubles at 2011 values

Brief description of the project

The project of the accelerator complex is designed to solve the following problems in the physics of energies in the range between 1 and 2.5 GeV, beyond the Standard Model: the violation of CP symmetry in charm decays; the validation of the Standard model through the study of tau-lepton decays; the study of c-quarks and tau-leptons generation and search for the so called exotic hadrons, hybrids and so on. The accelerator complex will also serve as a source of high brightness synchrotron radiation for fundamental and applied research.

Super Charm-Tau Factory - accelerator complex with colliding electron-positron beams

Location:

Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences (BINP SB RAS), Novosibirsk.

Initiating agency:

Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences (BINP SB RAS), Novosibirsk.

Duration of the project:

2017-2023

Uniqueness and advantages of the project

The installations are used to study the collisions of electrons with their antiparticles – positrons. Although the collision energy of all these installations is 1000-10000 times less than the energy of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, their high luminosity (collisions frequency) makes it possible to study rare processes and to perform the search for processes forbidden in the Standard Model. There are two accelerator complexes with colliding electron-positron beams in the world (in Japan and China), but the Russian installation will have an unprecedentedly high luminosity – 100 times higher than that achieved at the other accelerators in this energy range (without a significant increase in the intensity of the beams, installations’ size or a decrease in the length of the bunch). Such luminosity (the number of colliding particles per unit time) will provide three to four orders of magnitude more necessary events for analysis that will allow for effective gathering of statistical data to study rare phenomena of exceptional interest.

Scientific and practical significance of the project

Implementation of the project will make it possible to:

  • create a new generation of accelerators for use in radiation chemistry and physics, flaw detection, medicine, etc.;
  • develop detector technologies that will lead to new opportunities for improving the operation of medical equipment, industrial instruments, safety, etc.;
  • improve existing methods of cancer treatment in new centers for proton-ion therapy.

The factory will also allow broadening cooperation between national and foreign research groups and Budker Institute, which will inspire students’ and postgraduate students’ participation in high-level research.

Current state of the project

A conceptual project of the Super Charm-Tau Factory and a roadmap have been developed and today are being updated. The work on the development of the requirements for the computing infrastructure, as well as the design stage of the complex of buildings and engineering infrastructure has been completed. The detector identification system for the Factory is under development. The injection complex has been commissioned and in 2016 it began working in "cruising" mode at the existing colliders of BINP SB RAS: VEPP-4M and VEPP-2000.

Exawatt center for extreme light studies (XCELS)

Cost of the project:

The preliminary cost of the center is estimated at about 15 billion rubles.

Brief description of the project

The purpose of the project is to establish the large research infrastructure based on the use of the sources of laser radiation with high peak power. The project rests upon the considerable advance made in recent years in Russia and worldwide in creating petawatt lasers (1 Petawatt = 1015 W) with intensity up to 1022 W/cm2 and ultrashort pulse duration < 100 femtoseconds (1 femtosecond = 10-15 s), that is using the PEARL laser with a pulse power of 0.56 PW, pulse duration of about 45 fs and energy of 25 J, which was one of the five most powerful lasers in the world as of the moment of creation.

Exawatt center for extreme light studies (XCELS)

Location:

Experimental site "Bezvodnoe" at the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), Nizhny Novgorod Region

Initiating agency:

Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), Nizhny Novgorod

Duration of the project:

2014-2023

Uniqueness and advantages of the project

The core of the planned infrastructure will be a unique source of light having the power of 0,2 Exawatt (2*1017 W), hundreds of times greater than currently available. The fundamental processes of such laser-matter interaction belong to an absolutely new branch of science. There will open up opportunities for studying the spacetime structure of vacuum and unknown phenomena at the interface of high-energy physics and the physics of high fields.

Scientific and practical significance of the project

The envisaged applications of the results of these studies will include among others the development of compact charged-particle accelerators with sizes hundreds of times less that the available supercolliders, the creation of sources of ultrashort pulses of hard X-ray and gamma radiation for diagnosing materials with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, the elaboration of new sources of radiation and particles for clinical applications, and others.

Current state of the project

The project documentation for the construction of the XCELS building is under development. A high-voltage electronics building, which will be used to operate the XCELS parametric amplification pump lasers, was commissioned.

An experimental zone and a plasma chamber with diagnostic equipment for experiments on the interaction of petawatt optical pulses with solid targets, as well as a unique magnetic system that allows modeling a wide range of astrophysical problems, were created. The large-aperture DKDP and KDP crystals were developed for manufacturing critical components of kilojoule nanosecond pump lasers and parametric amplifiers of petawatt pulses. A large-aperture profilometer for surface quality control of precision optical elements was constructed. The profilometer was delivered to RFNC-VNIIEF, where it will be tested and further used for the construction of kilojoule pump lasers of XCELS parametric amplifiers. A regenerative amplifier for the system forming reference radiation of pump lasers of XCELS parametric amplifiers was developed.

 

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